MUSCULAR (DS-200B), located in the United Kingdom, is the name of a surveillance programme jointly operated by Britain’s Government Communications Headquarters (GCHQ) and the U.S. National Security Agency (NSA) that was revealed by documents which were released by Edward Snowden and interviews with knowledgeable officials. GCHQ is the primary operator of the program. GCHQ and the National Security Agency have secretly broken into the main communications links that connect Yahoo! and Google data centers around the world. Substantive information about the program was made public at the end of October, 2013.
Tempora is a clandestine security electronic surveillance program tested in 2008, established in 2011 and operated by the British Government Communications Headquarters (GCHQ). Tempora uses intercepts on the fibre-optic cables that make up the backbone of the internet to gain access to large amounts of internet users’ personal data. The intercepts are placed in the United Kingdom and overseas, with the knowledge of companies owning either the cables or landing stations. The existence of Tempora was revealed by Edward Snowden, a former American intelligence contractor who leaked information about the program to former Guardian journalist Glenn Greenwald in May 2013, as part of his revelations of government-sponsored mass surveillance programs. Documents Snowden acquired claimed that data collected by the Tempora program is shared with the National Security Agency of the United States.
This is just a couple of the power of Governmental Security that monitors the internet – Narus has the capability with NarusInsight machine can monitor traffic equal to the maximum capacity (10 Gbit/s) of around 39,000 256k DSL lines or 195,000 56k telephone modems. But, in practical terms, since individual internet connections are not continually filled to capacity, the 10 Gbit/s capacity of one NarusInsight installation enables it to monitor the combined traffic of several million broadband users.
Source : Wikipedia